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Unexplained difference of 13 cents in Vancouver and Seattle gas prices: inquiry

Screen Shot 2019-09-03 at 10.53.54 AMAn inquiry into British Columbia’s high gas prices says there’s an unexplained difference of 13 cents per litre between Metro Vancouver and Seattle that is costing drivers on the Canadian side of the border nearly $500 million a year.

Wholesale prices in southern B.C. are set based on those in the Pacific Northwest of the United States because it is a nearby region and a similar price is considered justifiable, B.C. Utilities Commission CEO David Morton said Friday.

However, the commission found that even after accounting for transportation costs and higher B.C. fuel standards, Metro Vancouver drivers are still paying more than those in Washington.

“The higher price differentials cannot be explained by economic theory or justified by known factors in the market, nor can the panel find a specific trigger in 2015 that would explain the beginning of this disconnect,” Morton said at a news conference.

Premier John Horgan called the public inquiry in May as prices reached a record-breaking $1.70 per litre. It was asked to explore factors influencing gas and diesel prices, not including taxes, since 2015 and actions the province could take.

Morton said some things have changed, including higher crude prices, the Trans Mountain pipeline’s capacity constraints and higher costs for retailers.

But prior to 2015, Metro Vancouver drivers paid five cents a litre more than Seattle drivers. Wholesale prices in northern B.C. are based on Edmonton prices and drivers in that part of the province pay six cents more a litre, he added.

Morton said B.C.’s wholesale market is not truly competitive because a small number of wholesalers control distribution and have the ability to influence prices.

In the retail market, companies including Parkland Fuel Corp., Suncor Energy, Shell Canada and Husky Energy have greater direct control over pricing in B.C. compared with the Canadian average, he said.

“There’s no evidence to suggest collusion among the retail operators exists nor is there evidence of cartel behaviour. However, the panel refrained from suggesting that the B.C. retail market is performing optimally,” Morton said.

“Rather, we observed that prices move up and down in a manner that gives the appearance of a functioning competitive market. But it’s also possible this pricing behaviour is choreographed.”

B.C.’s refineries have been operating at capacity since 2015 and it appears the amount of storage is not a factor in prices, he said.

The Trans Mountain pipeline changed its allocation that year to increase crude oil and reduce gasoline shipped to Metro Vancouver, he said, but more capacity would not guarantee a price reduction.

“Even if cheaper gasoline from Alberta was available, as long as pricing is based on the Pacific Northwest spot price, customers would not see the benefits of that.”

Morton said the province could consider encouraging more refinery capacity, but it would be challenging given that gas and diesel demand is projected to decline. Another option would be regulations to reduce the price differential.

Jobs, Trade and Technology Minister Bruce Ralston said the report provides “significant evidence” to support the view that price gouging exists in the market.

“An oligopoly is a word that is not used very frequently, but it means a state of limited competition in which a market is dominated by a small number of producers,” he said.

The Canadian Fuels Association said the report highlights a number of factors that contribute to B.C. price fluctuations, including increased reliance on fuel imports.

“While price regulation can moderate price fluctuations, it can also have unintended consequences. We recommend that B.C. consult with price-regulated jurisdictions to understand the real market impacts. In our view, markets work best without interference.”

Peter Milobar, a Liberal who represents Kamloops-North Thompson in the legislature, said the inquiry should have been allowed to consider the impacts of provincial taxes.

“Horgan and the NDP dragged their feet with a sham review that was barred from looking at the impact of their policies and taxation on the costs of fuel. John Horgan insisted high gas prices were due to industry collusion and this review has proven him wrong.”

Federal Fisheries Minister Jonathan Wilkinson said expanding the Trans Mountain pipeline could help reduce prices, despite Morton’s comments to the contrary.

“The lack of supply – whether that’s lack of refined product in the pipeline or it’s lack of refined product that’s being produced by the Parkland refinery – can have an impact on prices,” Wilkinson said.

“Certainly in that context, having additional capacity in an expanded pipeline may be useful.”


B.C. gas price report in the pipeline

The B.C. Utilities Commission inquiry into gasoline and diesel prices in the province is expected have its final report done by Friday.

Premier John Horgan called the public inquiry in May when gasoline prices at the pump reached a record-breaking $1.70 per litre.


Gas price inquiry questions Trans Mountain capacity, company denies collusion

One of the largest fuel companies in British Columbia says there’s no retail market more competitive than gasoline in Canada and an executive denies any price setting between competitors.

Ian White, senior vice-president of marketing and innovation for Parkland Fuel Corp., told a three-member panel leading a public inquiry into the province’s gas prices on Wednesday that a price difference of one-tenth of a cent per litre can be enough to lose customers.

Parkland Fuel operates gas stations under Chevron and other banners, supplies fuel to airlines and BC Ferries, and owns and operates a refinery in Burnaby.

White said while factors like clean washrooms and convenience stores can influence consumers, they simply won’t visit your gas station if you don’t have a competitive price for fuel.

Economist Henry Kahwaty, who was hired by Parkland, told the panel that the competitive environment leads retailers into a race to the bottom until they reach unprofitable prices, at which point there is typically a price jump and the process repeats itself.

But he said controlling that process would require a significant level of co-ordination considering almost half of the gas stations in B.C. are run by independent dealers rather than companies.

“This is not evidence of collusion,” Kahwaty said.

Representatives from Shell also told the panel the market is competitive, adding the company sets wholesale prices independently from other firms.

Premier John Horgan called the public inquiry in May as prices at the pump reached a record-breaking $1.70 per litre.

At the time, the B.C. Liberals and Alberta government bought advertising blaming Horgan and linking his government’s resistance to the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion and taxes to the surging costs.

Jean-Denis Charlebois, chief economist for the National Energy Board, told the inquiry panel he can’t account for an independent report that contradicts the board’s claim that the Trans Mountain pipeline is operating at capacity.

Charlebois told the three-member panel that in the first quarter of 2019, the Trans Mountain pipeline was operating at 98 per cent capacity.

The panel asked if he could shed light on a report by economists Robyn Allan and Marc Eliesen, the former president of the Insurance Corporation of B.C. and chief executive of BC Hydro, respectively.

Allan and Eliesen’s analysis found the Trans Mountain capacity is 400,000 barrels a day, falling to 300,000 barrels a day only if 20 per cent of the capacity is taken up by heavy oil. But it rarely reaches that threshold of heavy oil and Allan and Eliesen claim there were 97,000 barrels a day of capacity in the first quarter of 2019 that were not used.

Allan and Eliesen are scheduled to appear before the panel on Thursday.

The inquiry is tasked with exploring factors that may be influencing gas and diesel prices in B.C. since 2015 and the mechanisms the province could use to moderate price fluctuations.

Kahwaty warned that regulating wholesale prices by setting them artificially low would have the effect of actually raising retail prices because supply would be pulled out of the market as a correction.

“Wholesale regulation would have the impact of actually increasing the retail margin because we’re not allowing the market to fully clear,” he said.

“At first blush, its a counterintuitive point to make.”

Such regulation in the Atlantic provinces has targeted volatility, rather than high prices, he said.

Earlier Wednesday, Liberal Leader Andrew Wilkinson issued a statement criticizing the government for the inquiry’s short timeline and terms of reference that limit it from investigating government activity that affects gas prices.

“It is outrageous that an investigation into fuel costs would be barred from considering the impacts of fuel taxes, transit taxes, and the government’s opposition to increasing pipeline capacity,” Wilkinson said.

The panel could hear up to four days of oral submissions in Vancouver this week.

The inquiry will conclude with a final report by the panel due Aug. 30.

 


B.C. gasoline prices rose with land costs but full differentials unexplained: report

Filling Gas Tank_Sm_070218Gasoline prices in British Columbia have risen in line with land costs and credit card processing fees but that doesn’t fully explain why they’re so much higher than in other parts of Western Canada, a new report says.

The report by Deetkten Group was posted online last week by the B.C. Utilities Commission, which is overseeing a public inquiry into sky-high gas prices in the province.

The consultant’s report says Vancouver’s gasoline retail margins, which are the difference between the wholesale price for fuel and the retail price less tax, “highly” correlates with local land values.

It also says credit card processing fees are applied as a percentage of a total transaction, meaning the fees will be higher in jurisdictions like Vancouver where prices at the pump are already high.

“Rising land costs and credit card processing fees may account for nearly the entire differential observed between Vancouver and comparable areas, at least up to the end of 2018,” the report says.

But even after those factors are taken into account for this year, 1.4 cents per litre in the retail margins remains unexplained.

The report also can’t fully explain why wholesale gas prices are much higher in B.C. cities compared with other jurisdictions.

The consultants compared wholesale prices in Vancouver and Kamloops with Edmonton and Seattle, which are also sources of supply for B.C.

Transportation and regulatory costs may account for higher wholesale gas prices in B.C., but even estimating those costs at their highest potential doesn’t explain the difference, it says.

“Even the highest estimates of transport and regulatory costs combined do not sufficiently account for the differential in wholesale prices between the Vancouver market and the Edmonton and Seattle markets, particularly in 2019,” the report says.

A differential of about five cents per litre between Vancouver and Edmonton this year is unaccounted for in the report.

Unlike gasoline prices, diesel prices have remained largely consistent with historical trends when compared with other parts of Western Canada.

“This may be in part due to different demand dynamics in the diesel market,” it says.

Premier John Horgan ordered the inquiry in mid-May as the price of a litre of regular gasoline climbed above $1.70.

In commissioning the probe, he said that gas and diesel price increases were “alarming, increasingly out of line with the rest of Canada, and people in B.C. deserve answers.”

Four days of oral submissions are in the process this week and the three-member panel can question industry representatives, including gas and diesel suppliers.


Most fuel suppliers won’t release profit margin details to B.C. gas price probe

Most gas suppliers in British Columbia are refusing to share how they set prices at the pump just days before hearings on the issue are set to begin at a public inquiry.

The B.C. Utilities Commission has been ordered to review the last four years of gas and diesel pricing in the province and asked suppliers to complete a questionnaire about various business aspects including their profit margins.

Commission CEO David Morton said the inquiry panel is working to determine if it needs the financial information and to assure the companies that it won’t release confidential information.

“I don’t think there’s any cause for alarm,” Morton said in an interview last week.

The suppliers range from Shell and Imperial to Suncor, Husky, Super Save and 7-11, but documents submitted to the commission show that only 7-11 has responded with details about how it sets the price per litre at the pumps.

It has requested the information not be released publicly and the utilities commission has complied, posting a redacted version of 7-11’s questionnaire response on its website.

The other suppliers offered almost identical reasons for withholding profit margin data, with Husky’s submission citing “commercially sensitive information” that is “not shared publicly or between refiners.”

As the price of a litre of regular gasoline climbed above $1.70 in mid-May, Premier John Horgan ordered the probe, saying that gas and diesel price increases were “alarming, increasingly out of line with the rest of Canada, and people in B.C. deserve answers.”

The inquiry timetable calls for the release of the second phase of the utilities commission consultant report today, followed by up to four days of oral submissions, where panel members can question industry representatives, including gas and diesel suppliers.

Bruce Ralston, minister of jobs, trade and technology, said in a statement that he’s disappointed with the companies that refused to provide the information and urged them to co-operate.

“People deserve to know why the price of gasoline in B.C. has seen such wild swings,” Ralston said.

But Morton said he’s not surprised that most of the companies withheld the information.

The utilities commission has established procedures for dealing with confidential information, including commercial information around prices that would harm the company if released, but it typically works with gas and electric utilities.

“Many of the participants aren’t as familiar with our approach to confidentiality so we understand there may be some apprehension around it,” Morton said.

If the organizations can show they would experience harm because a competitive price became public, then the utilities commission would typically honour that, he said.

“If there’s information critical to the inquiry of that nature, then the panel would review that information and we would make a decision but we wouldn’t make a reference to any of those numbers in the decision.”

The commission generally tries to avoid confidential information in its proceedings because it means decisions may have to be redacted, which it doesn’t consider to be “the best outcome,” Morton said.

Morton, who is on the inquiry panel, said they are in the process of reviewing the submissions and may determine that they don’t actually need specific numbers to answer the inquiry’s questions of why B.C.’s gas prices are different from the rest of the country and why the prices swing.

If the panel determines the figures are vital to the inquiry, and the companies still refuse to share them, the commission can apply through the B.C.Supreme Court for access.

That would set back the inquiry’s timeline but it remains on schedule so far, Morton said.

When the commission unveiled the process for the inquiry in May, the utilities commission said it would explore factors potentially affecting prices in B.C. since 2015, including competition and the amount of fuel in storage.

It is also expected to examine mechanisms that could be used to moderate price fluctuations and increases.

The three-person inquiry panel must submit its final report by Aug. 30.


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Oil companies may be called to testify under B.C.’s gas price probe

British Columbia’s independent energy regulator will have the power to call oil company representatives as witnesses into an investigation of high gasoline prices in the province.

Premier John Horgan has tasked the B.C. Utilities Commission to examine the market factors that affect wholesale and retail gas prices, and he wants a report by Aug. 30.

Gas prices hovering around $1.70 per litre in the Metro Vancouver area have been the highest in Canada for several months.

Horgan says he’s given the utilities commission broad terms of reference to conduct a fair and transparent investigation that would include concerns about competition and why recent gas refining margins for Vancouver have been more than double the Canadian average.

Liberal Leader Andrew Wilkinson has been calling on the New Democrats to reduce provincial gas taxes and has applied to participate in the investigation as an intervener.

Horgan says in a statement the terms of reference give the utilities commission the reach to investigate price fixing and gouging and to make recommendations.


Vancouver expected to headline long Canadian summer of high gasoline prices

Gasoline prices are expected to remain just below record highs all across Canada this summer except in Vancouver, where a perfect storm of factors will likely ensure motorists continue to set new all-time records at the pumps.

Fuel market analysts say average retail prices in Canada are within a penny or two of their year-ago levels, which were some of the highest on record for many markets.

“Vancouver certainly is (at historic highs) but the other major markets we’re looking at, such as Calgary, Toronto, Halifax, Montreal, they’re not exceeding historical levels, they’re basically at historic levels,” said Michael Ervin, senior vice-president at the Kent Group Ltd.

The average price of gasoline in major Canadian markets last week was about $1.34 per litre, but it varied from around $1.23 in Calgary and Winnipeg to the high of $1.70 or more in Vancouver.

Gasoline prices rise every spring due to factors including the higher cost of making summer gasoline — which requires an extra four or five cents per litre for additives to prevent evaporation — and supply interruptions as refineries shut down for routine maintenance, the analysts said.

Prices have also risen in part due to the federal carbon tax on fuel that was applied to Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick and Manitoba on April 1.


Ontario Chamber of Commerce asks government to abandon gas pump sticker plan

Forcing gas station operators to display Ontario government stickers on the federal carbon tax violates their rights and freedoms, the province’s chamber of commerce said April 25, as it asked the Progressive Conservatives to reverse their decision.

OCC president Rocco Rossi

OCC president Rocco Rossi

In a letter to the Energy Minister Greg Rickford, chamber president Rocco Rossi said the group’s members are concerned about the “political nature” of the decals, which were unveiled earlier this month as part of the Tory government’s fight against the federal levy.

“Our members—including gas station operators—have expressed concerns regarding the political nature of the stickers, viewing them as a violation of their rights and freedoms,” Rossi said.

Ontario has introduced legislation that requires stickers—in English and French—to be put on gas pumps showing that the tax has added 4.4 cents a litre to the price of gasoline and that will rise to 11 cents per litre by 2022.

The government said earlier this month the stickers will cost taxpayers approximately $5,000 to print 25,000 decals but that does not cover the cost to distribute them to the province’s 3,200 gas stations.

Gas station operators who don’t display the government-mandated stickers could be subject to fines of up to $10,000 per day.

Rossi called on the government to scrap the section in the legislation, which mandates the stickers.

“This initiative is an example of unnecessary red tape: it is both a new administrative burden and an increased cost to business thanks to the punitive and outsized fines for non-compliance,” he said in the letter.

Rickford defended the stickers, saying in a statement that the federal carbon tax will have a negative impact on every one in the province.

“Ontario families have the right to know exactly what the Trudeau carbon tax costs them every time they fill up at the pump,” he said in a statement. “The carbon tax will kill jobs and raise the price of nearly everything across our province, hurting every member of the Ontario Chamber of Commerce.”

The letter is a rare example of the chamber publicly disagreeing with the Ford government on policy since it came to office last year. Rossi points out that the chamber has supported the Tories on a number of pieces of legislation and the government’s ongoing work to reduce Ontario’s deficit and debt.

The carbon tax is expected cost to a typical household $258 this year and $648 by 2022. Residents of provinces with the tax will be getting rebates on their income tax returns that start at $128 annually and increase for people with spouses or dependents at home. The federal government says a family of four in Ontario would get $307 this year.

Ontario is one of four provinces, including Manitoba, Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, where Ottawa imposed the levy because they opted not to impose their own pricing schemes on carbon emissions.


Canada banning oil, gas and mining from marine protected areas

The oil and gas industry has worn out its welcome in Canadian marine conservation areas. Fisheries Minister Jonathan Wilkinson announced a total ban on oil and gas work, as well as mining, waste-dumping and bottom-trawling, in all of Canada’s marine protected areas. Wilkinson was at an international nature summit in Montreal where Canada is pushing other countries to do more to protect the global environment.

The changes apply recommendations made last fall by a panel the government asked to provide advice on the best way to improve standards in marine protected areas. The ban on industrial activities brings Canada up to international standards recommended by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

The bans apply only to marine protected areas, which are specific areas within bodies of water that are granted protected status by federal, provincial or territorial governments. Until now, activities like oil and gas exploration and exploitation were only banned in these areas on a case-by-case basis.

Marine refuges, which are more numerous areas where governments impose fisheries closures often to protect just a single species, will still allow oil and gas operations.

The ones that do will not be counted towards Canada’s commitment to protect 10 per cent of the country’s marine and coastal areas by 2020.

Canada had hit nearly eight per cent by the end of 2018, but more than half of that amount is marine refuges. It’s not clear yet what effect discounting refuges that are still open to oil and gas work will have on the total.

The World Wildlife Federation of Canada said last fall it was concerned about the exemption for marine refuges.

Oceana Canada, a charity devoted to protecting ocean life, also raised concerns that four months after Canada named the Northeast Newfoundland Slope Conservation Area — a 47,000-square-kilometre section of the Atlantic Ocean — as a marine refuge in 2017, it agreed to allow oil and gas exploration in the same area. That decision also angered local fishers since the designation barred all fishing in the name of environmental protection.